One can also see web browsers above.
FTP, SCP. Web mirrors. wget. Bit Torrent.
Also protocols that were used with modems before the
Internet became big, such HS/Link and Z-Modem
and source code for them. Sometimes such
protocols were supported internal to
terminal software (see above section).
Utilities (OLDDOS.EXE) for Win95 contain the MS-DOS
networking software that was included with MS-DOS 6.x
(InterSvr/InterLnk). There are other options to
transmit over a parallel/serial port.
Some major online service providers developed special software
for integrating with them. This made a lot of sense in the days before the
widespread use of the Internet, because end users needed some way to interface
with the resources provided by such companies. In modern times, the usage of
standardized software is generally superior than customized software which may
be designed to assist the service providers at the expense of end users. For
example, one company has been known to cause their software to report to end
users that it was updating, when the reality was that the updates being
downloaded were simply new advertisements that would be stored in a cache so
they could appear quickly later.