Web Browsers

and Plug-ins


Table of Contents

Page Content

[#gfxbrows]: Graphical Web Browsers
Microsoft Internet Explorer
TOOGAM's MS IE Download Page has links to downloading MS IE versions. Note: Microsoft has been known to include updated software code for things like Outlook Express and Windows Operating System code like Dial-Up Networking in various versions/updates of MS IE, increasing performance and decreasing the amounts of known security flaws. Therefore it is recommended to update to the latest MS IE version, especially if there is going to be any network usage, even if MS IE is not plannged to be used as a web browser. Also, some software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader 6 for Microsoft Windows may require some minimum version of MS IE to have been installed.
Gecko-based browsers
Browsers based on Mozilla/Firefox code

There are a number of browsers based on the code of the Firefox web browser. The key reasons for different browser packages with different names are the differences from the general Firefox code. For example, Iceweasel may include some security fixes introduced since the last official Firefox release. Due to the possibility of such security enhancements, Iceweasel can generally be recommended over Firefox for average end users when both browsers are equally available on a platform and have the same version number.

Availability may be an important consideration in choosing which web browser to use. In some cases, the choice between browser options may best be decided upon which browser is using the most recent code base. In the case of Iceweasel and Firefox, this may be easily determined by end users simply by looking at the version number. Even if Iceweasel on Debian is updated more often than Firefox on other platforms, Iceweasel may not (yet) be regularly updated for a specific different operating system platform. In such cases, the Firefox distribution may commonly be the most recently updated release.

Beyond availability, certain feature may lead some people to use one web browser over another. These can include security fixes (differentiating Iceweasel from Firefox) and integration of code (where a suite like IceApe may combine several applications and a slimmed down product like K-Meleon may try to remove some uncritical code).


This is software that contains the code and functionality of the web browser Firefox that is released by the Mozilla Corporation. If a user can choose between both browsers and they are different versions, the one with the later version number is likely to have a more recent codebase and is generally recommended for functionality. If they have identical versions, the Iceweasel version might have some newer code since, as the Debain Wiki page on Iceweasel notes, Iceweasel may have “backporting of security fixes to declared stable version”. For this reason of possibly having more recent code related to security, Iceweasel is recommended over Firefox for end users if both browsers appear to be available with the same version number. Additionally, software developers may appreciate the fact that Iceweasel has fewer requirements on software development and distribution.

In truth, the differences between Iceweasel and Firefox can be so small (particularly on a system that doesn't show a program icon on the title bar), and possibly non-interactive (in the case of a security enhancement) that an end user could easily not notice any difference between the two browsers. Therefore, if a release of Firefox has a later version number than the most recent version of Iceweasel for the same platform, average end users may generally have a more pleasant experience by using the browser with the more recent version number. That said, the same could probably also be said for other browsers using the same codebase, such as IceApe, Seamonkey, GNU IceCat, and so forth.

Some platforms may not yet have a regularly updated version of Iceweasel. The Get IceWeasel! page (probably made in the same spirit as the Spread Firefox site or Mozilla's own WWW.GetFirefox.Com) shows how to get the latest version of Iceweasel using apt-get. This should work in Debian. However, the site does not have instructions for getting Iceweasel for other operating systems. Users of Microsoft Windows often use pre-built binaries. Since IW4Win (apparently by the poster of Curriegrad2004's April 14, 2007 page) may have an old version, average end users of that operating system platform may see more benefit to using the latest version of Firefox.

Since the browsers function identically, the choice to use Iceweasel branding instead of Firefox is not about functionality if both browsers are available with the same version. The reasons for using Iceweasel branding have to do with the Iceweasel branding having less legal restrictions, particularly for those involved with the software development process. For details of general usage, such as add-ons, see the section about Firefox. (The rest of this section is about the few differences between the browsers. That may change as content may be moved from the Firefox area to the Iceweasel area.) Web sites shouldn't differ based on the browser, especially since the User Agent string in Iceweasel can be configured.

The Get Iceweasel! site shows how to obtain IceWeasel in Debian. It appears that there might simply not be a version for Microsoft Windows.

The re-branding that created Iceweasel was done so that the software does not legally bind people by requiring specific procedures regarding development and subsequent distribution. As a primary example, the Debian operating system is able to release security patches for Iceweasel browser when the it is included in a frozen codebase. (The Mozilla Corporation, out of a desire to control actions that occur with the use of their trademarked name Firefox, has decided to disallow some software from being allowed to perform such software maintenance.)

In addition to Iceweasel, similar products Iceape, Icedove, and Iceowl have been released so the relevant software can be released without infringing on other trademarks owned by the Mozilla Corporation. These trademarks are released with the same licensing as the software code, allowing security improvements to the software to be distributed without the vendor pre-approval legal requirements and without concern about the Mozilla Corporation revoking permission for a project to release the software, which the Mozilla Corporation has been known to do to an operating system.

Wikipedia: Mozilla Corporation software rebranded in Debian redirects to Wikipedia: Mozilla software rebranding.

In Debian, the Iceweasel browser may be executed by running an executable called iceweasel or a symlink called firefox. Intrestingly, Ubuntu (which is based on Debian) does use the Firefox name, apparently unaffected from when the Mozilla Corporation revoked permission for Debian to use the Firefox trademark.

The similar product GNU IceCat was once released under the name GNU IceWeasel, and therefore the lowercase w in the name of the Iceweasel browser may be signficant for some people in helping to prevent confusion regarding the exact software being referenced.

Software using the Iceweasel name and logo do not appear to be available yet for as many platforms as Firefox (even though the changes are minimal and there are no substantial restrictions to prevent this from being done). Some operating system platforms may have a version of Firefox released without an Iceweasel release being made for the same platform.

[#firefox]: Mozilla's Firefox
A domain for Mozilla Firefox:
Latest releases for Microsoft Windows
Silent Installation


"Firefox Setup 54.0.1.exe" -ms

uninstall: "Firefox Setup 54.0.1.exe" /S


Firefox 1.5

Firefox 1.5 was the first version with auto-update capability. It is therefore mentioned first, in case one seeks a small version that can be downloaded and used quickly, and then upgraded later using Help, "Check for updates..." (or by settings controlled with Tools menu, Options... item, Advanced screen, Update tab).

Firefox for Windows (Firefox for Win32, downloaded via HTTP) (local)

Firefox 1.5 has been removed from the main Firefox site, so URLs like the following won't work: http://releases.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/firefox/releases/latest-1.5/ or http://www.mozilla.com/products/download.html?product=firefox- for English download. The "All Older" Versions page (which used to be titled "Download Firefox 1.5" at the top) has downloads for other languages. The last official version of Firefox 1.5 was Firefox

Some mirrors that have been proven byte-for-byte identical to the release from the main site:


Future versions
MozillaWiki Releases gives details about versions before they are released, including scheduled release dates which may be over 6 weeks into the future (cited Christmas Eve 2007 when it estimated February 5 as the final release date for
Firefox 2.0

Firefox 2.x may be the last version with an official Firefox release for Win9x. It has been rumored that Firefox 3 won't have official releases made for Win9x. (Perhaps the solution for such operating systems will be to use K-Meleon or Iceweasel, the former if which is how Windows 95 users may use Firefox-like code.)

Check the Firefox website to find the latest 2.x version. Firefox download, Firefox for Windows (renamed from "Firefox Setup"), Firefox for Microsoft Windows (installer), Firefox for Microsoft Windows (installer) (renamed from "Firefox Setup"), or, slightly smaller, Firefox for Microsoft Windows (installer, zipped)

Firefox 3
Other releases
Archvied versions (of Firefox) (the page is called "Archived versions" in the hyperlink on the Other Systems and Languages page, as it is called on the Firefox main page (in English)). One can also check the contrib/ and contrib-localized/ (for versions with support for other languages) directories from the releases site for files that haven't made it into the main distribution. For example: Firefox (English) for OS/2?

A “Funnelcake” release simply identifies that people have installed Firefox using one of the installers that Mozilla identified as a “Funnelcake” installer. Upgrading from a Funnelcake release will result in still identifying the Funnelcake release. For example, after installing Firefox
Funnelcake Jul 2012
mozilla13 - 1.0
and then using the software to upgrade (by going to Help, About) when version 42.0 was the latest version, the resulting version was identified as
Funnelcake Jul 2012
mozilla13 - 1.0

e.g.: Firefox 14.0.1 Funnelcake Jul 2012 mozilla13 - 1.0 (Win32)

Or, for an older release, e.g.: Firefox 13.0.1 Funnelcake 11 Jul 2012 mozilla11 - 1.0 (Win32) (zipped locally at Firefox 13.0.1 Funnelcake 11 Jul 2012 mozilla11 - 1.0 (Win32) (renamed installer, zipped). (The original installer was just named "Firefox Setup 13.0.1.exe".)

Some Firefox releases (starting with 16.0.2) have multiple Funnelcake installers listed at Firefox FTP Releases (accessed with HTTPS)

"Changes made to about:config are stored in a file that is not present by default; user.js in the Mozilla profile folder."
  • set network.http.pipelining to true
  • MET's "Speed of Sound" page (which is not publicly accessible, but has been located at http://members.met-art.com/main/members/access/now/main/explorer.htm ) has at some point said to: set network.http.proxy.pipelining to true
  • TweakFactor says: set network.http.pipelining.firstrequest to true
  • Both says: increase network.http.pipelining.maxrequests (TF to 8, MET to 30)
  • nglayout.initialpaint.delay set to 0. "Initial Paint Delay actually slows down the rendering of the ENTIRE page but since users tend to start reading before the entire page is rendered, setting this to a low value gives the impression that the page loads faster."
[#ffaddons]: Add-ons

Add-ons are technically different than Plug-ins, visibly in how they are accessed. (The spelling of Add-ons and Plug-ins both have hyphens. Add-ons uses a dash as can be seen from text from the Firefox Add-ons, not to mention Firefox itself with the Add-ons option in the Tools menu. So does Plug-ins, as per the text from the first line of text from the about:plugins URL, despite the mozdev PluginDoc: Windows (Most Popular) page not using a dash.) Add-ons are visible by using the Tools menu and selecting the Add-ons option. In contrast, one can get an idea of the plugins by using the browser to visit about:plugins although that page may list plug-ins by something like the filename or protocol. As an example, Adobe Flash Player 9.0 r115 will show up as Shockwave Flash (even though Shockwave is a different platform).

  • IE Tab IE Tab on Firefox Add-ons site. With IE Tab source code available, this lets Mozilla/Firefox for Windows use the IE rendering engine present on a Windows system. For users of Firefox 2.x and 1.5x, IE Tab v.1.3.3 (as it was called on the main IE Tab web site) (also known as Version on Addons site's page for Old Versions of IE Tab) is said to work with versions 1.5 - 3.0a5. (Version 1.5.20080310 is meant for Firefox 3.0b3 - 3.0.*). (zipped locally, and for easier installation just use Firefox to directly download the extracted local, renamed IE Tab 1.3.3.)
  • [#ffoxlntg]: Supporting the <LINK> tag:

    To add some integrated support for the perfectly proper, but way under-utilized <LINK> HTML tag, one can use some add-ons.

    The Link Widgets add-on for Firefox can support not only the <LINK> tag, but also some pages that don't even bother to add support for this tag. This unique feature makes the navigational features work more often than those that simply use the support built into existing web pages. To use this, install the Add-on and then go to View, Toolbars, Customize.

    For web developers, linknav.js adds support for Firefox and other browsers.

    There are other add-ons too: Site Navigation Bar (snb German page), older addons? (apparently two, called “Link Toolbar” and “LinkIt”)

Session Manager. The Session Manager page on the Firefox Add-ons site says about the oldest version on the Session Manager Version History page, "Session Manager 0.4.3 is the last version to work with Firefox 1.5."
Navigational Sounds (Navigational Sounds on Firefox Add-ons page) worked when PopupSound 0.1.5 didn't.
Location Bar
Location Bar recommendation
Firefox 2
Tab Counter
Tab Counter page from Firefox Add-ons site. Although there may be tons of add-ons that make minor display changes, this one has been particularly useful to quickly see how many tabs are opened, so a browser window with a few dozen tabs opened could easily be recognized as such, allowing the user to see that it may be time to close the browser window or at least some of the tabs, so that a 1GB Win98SE system doesn't have issues from running out of memory. (This was noticed with Firefox 2 versions before the version that controlled memory tighter.)
GNU releases: GNU IceWeasel/GNU IceCat/GNUzilla
A rebranded version of Firefox created in response to a legal issue over usage of the Firefox logo and branding. Note that GNU IceWeasel has been renamed and is not the same as the more modern Iceweasel project that is used in Debain and which is less restrictive. Wikipedia: Naming conflict between Debian and Mozilla (redirected to: Wikipedia: Mozilla Corporation software rebranded in Debian which redirects to Wikipedia: Mozilla software rebranding) has some history behind this. GNU IceWeasel has been renamed to GNU IceCat. gNewSense BurningDog is said (by GNUzilla's page) to be similar to IceWeasel. GNUzilla is a rebranded version of the Mozilla Suite.
[#iceape]: IceApe
Similar to SeaMonkey, but with the rebranding and licensing performed similar to Iceweasel.
[#seamonky]: SeaMonkey

Although SeaMonkey was originally used as a codename for the Mozilla Application Suite, software called SeaMonkey is now produced by the SeaMonkey Council's "SeaMonkey Project". This software is an "all-in-one internet application suite", and SeaMonkey 1.0 was released after Mozilla Suite 1.7.12 (the second-to-last version of Mozilla Suite). SeaMonkey is listed in Mozilla.org's “Our Projects” section of the site's main web page (right next to Firefox and Thunderbird).

Like the Mozilla Application Suite this includes software called Navigator (a web browser), Communicator (which includes software for E-Mail and newsgroups), Composer (an editor), and ChatZilla (an IRC client). (Netscape Communicator, which had source code used when the Mozilla Application Suite was being created, had some of these same software components.) There are official builds of SeaMonkey for 32-bit Windows (including Windows 95 with DCOM for Win95, Win98, WinNT 3.51, and newer), Mac OS X, and Linux (x86). There are contributed builds for OS/2, Solaris, and some more Linux builds. Wikipedia's page on SeaMonkey (Portability section) cites versions also existing for OpenBSD (which is released as an OpenBSD package), IRIX, and BeOS / Magnussoft ZETA.

[#othrgcko]: Other Gecko-based browsers
Firefox and SeaMonkey use Gecko, as do versions of Netscape with version numbers higher than 4.8. Gecko is a rendering engine. The Gecko - Mozilla Developer Center (beta) page sports the Netscape Gecko logo, but the page on the Netscape Gecko logo says "Please do not use this image elsewhere."

K-Meleon is for Windows, and the K-Meleon FAQ (about platforms) says "There are no plans to port K-Meleon to other platforms." It links to other projects like Galeon for Linux and Camino for Mac. System Requirements outlines additional downloads needed for operating systems earlier than XP.

Freeware Review Site (Web Browsers section) describes this as "a slimmed down cousin of Firefox that's optimized for Windows." (It isn't based on the Firefox code, but is based on the same Mozilla code that Firefox is.) One thing it doesn't support is as many add-ons or plug-ins as Firefox. Being about 90% of the size, its main advantage over Firefox may be the claim to speed. (Windows 95 users can run this, unlike Firefox.)

For the Gnome user interface for X-Windows.
Camino (another Camino URL)
For Mac OS X, listed on Mozilla Products page.
[#mozsuite]: Mozilla (Application) Suite
This has been discontinued after the release of version 1.7.13, and has been called both "Mozilla Application Suite" (as per the Mozilla Application Suite Release History page) and "Mozilla Suite" (as per the Mozilla Suite - The All-in-One Internet Application Suite) on pages by the project leaders. Mozilla 1.4 and later came with the "old GRE", the Gecko Runtime Environment. In addition to the hyperlinks just mentioned, those wishing to investigate this project may wish to see Mozilla 1.x Releases (there was not a Mozilla 2.x that this contrasted to, as version 1.7.13 is the latest official release) and developers may wish to read about Mozilla Hacking. For some newer software similar to the Mozilla Application Suite, see SeaMonkey.
[#netscbrw]: Netscape Browsers

Netscape's most noteworthy characteristic may be having a rich history. "Netscape, a web browser, from the very beginning is significantly more advanced than any other browser of the time, including NCSA Mosaic. " Once sold in software stores, competition from Microsoft's product Internet Explorer led the money-making Netscape Corporation to be releasing free downloads of its premier product, and the company eventually was sold to America Online. America Online won a legal settlement with Microsoft and then donated money to the Mozilla Foundation that later released Firefox.

Netscape implemented several technologies early, such as a working plug-in system that was used by some popular third party software, and introducing JavaScript. Tags and JavaScript were incompatible with rival Microsoft's Internet Explorer software, causing web site authors to need to choose which standard(s) they wished to invest in. Netscape's browsers and the rival MS IE were considered the opposing sides of the "browser wars". Eventually Netscape stopped investing much in the 4.x series and instead developed a brand new code base code-named Mozilla. This took so long that Netscape decided to call their next released product Netscape 6.

Official Download Pages
Netscape Navigator 9

To be the last official browser branded as Netscape. Unlike some earlier versions, like Netscape Browser 8, this was called "Netscape Navigator", or simply the word "Navigator" followed by the integer portion of the version number.

Announcement, Netscape for Windows, Netscape for Mac OSX, Netscape for Linux, MozInfo701 page: “the final Netscape, Netscape Navigator cites inclusion of fixes “by Firefox Netscape's UserAgent string indicates Gecko rendering engine rv” (I don't know why it discusses's UserAgent screen on this page about, checked June 20, 2008.) The page went on to discuss this version: “Netscape includes new migration add-on to help users migrate to either Flock or Firefox. WeatherBug add-on has been removed from this version.”

Netscape for Win98+, Netscape for OSX, Netscape for Linux. SillyDog701's main page had news dated 10 Dec, 2007 that says "Netscape Navigator released, based on Firefox".

Netscape 9
9.0b2 for Windows, 9.0b2 for Mac OSX, 9.0b2 for Linux. SillyDog701's page on Netscape Navigaotr 9 says "Netscape Navigator 9 is developed from the Mozilla Firefox 2.0".
Netscape 8

Netscape 8.1.3 English for Windows. Unlike Netscape 7 or Netscape 9, it appears that Netscape did not distribute a Mac OSX or Linux release of Netscape 8, as such software appears neither on Archive of Modern Netscape Browser nor NS FTP site (English 8.0) (nor other English versions).

Netscape 8 Requirements: Requires Windows 98SE/ME/2K/XP, and Internet Explorer 6.0 (if using the Trident engine), 64MB RAM. "Netscape 8.1 is based on Firefox 1.0.7, with security protection in mind. It also guarantees pages render correctly, even these designed for MSIE." (Side note: Netscape 8's original release apparently broke MSIE during its installation.)

A downed site and SillyDog701's Netscape Browser Archive and SATEXAS all quote: "Please Note: Netscape 8 does not contain an e-mail client, and we do not consider this is a direct replacement for Netscape 7.x. Users wish to upgrade to Netscape 8.0 are recommended to either try Mozilla Thunderbird (a standalone e-mail client) or get Mozilla Suite 1.7.x, or simply keep your copy of Netscape 7.2 for email purpose"s. (and from the SillyDog site, I quote:) "If you only use web-based email, you don't need to worry about this message." Note that Mozilla Suite discontinued after 1.7.13 so interested users may wish to use newer code from the SeaMonkey project.

In January of 2008, browser.netscape.com referred to this as "Netscape Browser 8" (when saying, "The automatic update feature in Netscape Browser 8 will not upgrade to")

Netscape 7
Netscape 7.x requires something other than Windows 95 (Win98/98SE/Me/NT4.0/2K/XP). and has an E-Mail client.
Netscape 7.2
Netscape 7.2 "Suite"/"Full Installer" (English) for Windows, Netscape 7.2 Suite (English) for Mac OSX, Netscape 7.2 Suite (English) for Linux, Netscape 7.2 (Navigator only) (English) for Windows
Netscape 7.1
Netscape 7.1 has a memory consuming issue in Win98 that is so bad that the distributor of Netscape 7.1 Streamline suggests using 7.02 instead. An alternative is to just apply a workaround: Forum post says to use: user_pref("browser.cache.memory.capacity", 4096); and to put that code into prefs.js. A comment on Mozilla.org's Bugzilla entry 204374 makes it seem like an all.js file can also be used.
Netscape 6
Netscape 6.2.3 English for Windows 95/98/NT4/98SE/ME/4.0/2K/XP

Netscape 6 was the first release that was meant for public use and which employed the Gecko rendering engine. Version 6.2.3 is the last version of Netscape to work in Windows 95. (Firefox does not work in Windows 95. For Windows 95 to work with newer Gecko code, look into the list of system requirements for K-Meleon.)

Netscape 5
Netscape never announced a version of Netscape 5 for public use. After some work on an upgrade to the Netscape 4 code base was made, the work on that expected release of Netscape 5 was scrapped so that Netscape 6, using the Gecko rendering engine, could be worked on. The fact that Microsoft already released Internet Explorer 6.0 before Netscape released anything with a version integer above 4 may also have had some influence. Some code from the time when Netscape 5 was worked on has been hyperlinked from SillyDog701's overview on "What happened to Netscape 5".
[#netscap4]: Netscape 4
Newest Netscape 4

Netscape 4.80 (Communicator "Complete" for Windows 95/98/NT, Communicator "Base" for Windows 95/98/NT)

Last 4.x version released. Complex JavaScript can cause the browser to crash.

This is named 4.8 mainly just because it came after version 4.79, and not in order to signify huge new features over 4.7x. Other versions are linked to from SillyDog701's Netscape Communicator 4.x page. For the most complete Netscape 4 experience, there is also Netscape Caldendar that is usable by installing Netscape 4.7 Professional before upgrading to a newer Netscape 4.x version.

Other Netscape 4.5+ releases

There is meaning to the cryptic filenames. For example: cc32d48.exe is Communicator Complete 32-bit with Domestic encryption, version 4.80.

Unlike version 4.71 and later, version 4.7 featured Communicator Enterprise/Professional (with Netscape Calendar) 32-bit w/ Domestic encryption 4.7 (from SillyDog FTP mirror). This can be noted in Communicator 4.72 Release Notes. This specific release doesn't appear to be on Netscape's FTP site any longer.

Archived post referred to by Netscape Calendar's fate on SillyDog701 (linked to from SillyDog701 Netscape Calendar page) suggests installing 4.7 before newer vrsions.

Version 4.71 also had a version for Linux 1.2. (There were also versions 4.72 and 4.73 for Linux 2.0, and after that any later versions needed Linux 2.2.) See SillyDog701's Netscape Communicator 4.x page for hyperlinks, and also the page about NS Calendar.

There was also MCD (Mission Control Desktop) English 4.79 (MCD 4.5 info), Mozilla CCK history page indicates CCK was out as early as 4.04. It appears that Netscape 4.80 did not have a special MCD version made.)

Netscape 4.08
(links found via Wayback Machine's cache). For Windows 3.1 (128-bit encryption): Communicator Complete install Communicator Base install Navigator Standalone
Earlier versions

Archive Products has links for versions 2.x and 3.x. Even earlier versions may be found from a third party site: SillyDog701's Netscape Browser Archive: retro-NS page.

Near links to DevEdge URLs, TOOGAM made a note that said:
Interesting comment found in the HTML source: " WriteBrowserTooOldMsg(); // On Netscape 3.03, document.write doesn't work inside tables. "

Third party releases

Netscape supported distributing customized versions of Netscape products created with the Client Customization Kit. FTP site: CCK (English) directory. NS 6 CCK download page cited requiring Win NT4/2K (and 32MB of RAM). Same goes for NS 7 CCK info, except double the RAM needed. It also says the CCK should be on the same drive (letter) as where the customized NS7 builds go. NS CCK 6.2 guide.

SillyDog701's Streamline

Netscape's Communities page says "SillyDog701 is an independent website created by Antony Shen." SillyDog701, who runs a Netscape Archive, Netscape 6.x/7.x Streamline versions were made using the Client Customization Kit. (The latest version appears to be 7.1, and Netscape 7.1 has some memory leaking bugs when run under Win98, bugs so severe that 7.02 is recommended instead for Win9x users... although there is a workaround that this site describes when discussing Netscape 7.1) There are some minor changes made from the official distribution, such as adding the SillyDog website as a linked support site, and disabling Quick Launch as the default.

(A page says that NS 7.0 was the last with a CCK, but yet Netscape 7.1 Streamline was made with the CCK. Maybe this was done using an old NS CCK?)

Other related software/utilities/information
WebKit based browsers
Google Chrome
Old info...

The hyperlink from Google's main page (Sept 4, 2008) was called “Download Chrome (BETA)”. Beta download link announced on Google's main page noticed on Thursday, September 4, 2008. Wasn't there sometime on Sept 3.

Directions for Win64

Download Chromium refers to Chromum Browser Snapshots which refers to various platforms including Chromium Browser Snapshots for Win64.

That page has its own internal scroll bar, which may be in addition to whatever scroll bar the browser has for the page. So, you may need to check for multiple scroll bars. If the innermost scroll bar is moved to the bottom, the last file (alpha-numerically, with letters coming after numbers) is LAST_CHANGE which is a short file that contains a build number. You can also see that build number in the “Commit Position” column.

Version info

Version numbers can also be seen at Woolyss download info.

Inside the directory named after the build number, there should be multiple files.

When downloading, the downloaded filename may contain a reference to the platform and build number. e.g., for build 399407, the filename was Win_x64%2F399407%2Fchrome-win32.zip

(%2F is understood by web servers to be a slash.) From a command prompt, each % may need to be escaped by a second %.

However, files related to version 357314 replaced the %2F with a hyphen. (Maybe there was a difference related to which web browser was used to download the files?)


The mini-installer.exe is probably the most recommended route for people seeking the easiest installation process.

As noted by Chromium Win64 installer info, mini_installer.exe “Installation is silent. After 2 or 3 seconds, a shortcut will be automatically created on your desktop.”


Alternatively, there may be a “chrome-win32.zip”. Based on Google Chrome 64-bit on Windows: announcement, it seems that may be the 64-bit version. So, no worries, despite the misleading filename.

The typical installation location is %LOCALAPPDATA%\Chromium\Application

After extracting the ZIP file, upon running, the program may say “Google API keys are missing. Some functionality of Chromium will be disabled.” The “Learn More” hyperlink goes to Google's API Keys page.

(Some older documentation follows...)

Chromium download information has a 32-bit version available for Microsoft Windows. The “Not-as-easy” steps involve choosing an operating system. The web page may have two scroll bars, so using the inner scroll bar may be necessary.

Then, the Chromium download information page documents a process of viewing a file named LAST_CHANGE which will show the latest number. The numeric directories are not exactly numerical (because shorter directory lengths are sorted based on an alphanumerical sort, not based on numeric value). Inside the numeric subdirectory may be multiple files, including a mini_installer.exe which is more than a third of the size of a larger installer.

Alternatively, the “download information” page just as an easier hyperlink to Chromium download URL which may provide a zip file, and hyperlinks to alternate platforms. The page also notes that the “raw build of Chromium” being offerred “may be tremendously buggy.” People who are not liking the sounds of that are encouraged to use a Google Chrome product (such as Chrome Canary, which may be stable more frequently than Chromium).

Chromium: Windows 64-bit provides hpyerlinks, including “Dev channel for Windows (64-bit)” which led to DevChannel ... DevChannel#

Chrome Canary

Chrome Canary has a 64-bit Windows release, and other releases. (At the time of this writing, the full-fledged Chrome release, and Chromium, do not have available versions designed for the x64 Windows platform, so Google intends for people to use the 32-bit software on the x64 operating systems. That is not necessarily true for other operating systems: a Linux x64 release has been made available.)

Although Chromium can be made a default browser, Chrome Canary (for Windows x64) states, “This is a secondary installation of Google Chrome, and cannot be made your default browser.” (That message shows up even if Chrome Canary is the only web browser that has been added to the machine since the operating system has been installed.)


Google Chrome's home page: http://google.com/chrome

Chrome 64-bit for Windows

Thanks to JosephMCasey's answer to dghubble's SuperUser.com question, “How to Install Google Chrome from the command line”, a URL for an Offline installer has been identified. Using information from Google's chrome-installer.min.js file, this URL has been identified for the latest version of Chrome 64-bit for Microsoft Windows:


harrymc's answer to Peter Mortensen's SuperUser.com question, “How do I find version numbers for Google Chrome offline installers?” provided another URL:


Here is some older information: Chrome for Win64 is probably easier to download. For a long time, Google seemed hesitant to make this as easily available. Google Chrome 64-bit on Windows: announcement referred people to the Chrome download page.

Chrome for Win32

Thanks to JosephMCasey's answer to dghubble's SuperUser.com question, “How to Install Google Chrome from the command line”, a URL for an Offline installer has been identified. Using information from Google's chrome-installer.min.js file, this URL has been identified for the latest version of the 32-bit version of Chrome for Microsoft Windows:


harrymc's answer to Peter Mortensen's SuperUser.com question, “How do I find version numbers for Google Chrome offline installers?” provided another URL:


Google Chrome alternate installer (web page URL) is hyperlinked from: Google Support: Install Chrome offline on Windows. According to this blog, interworks “Install Google Chrome Web Browser On A Windows 2008 Terminal Server For All Users” blog by interworks, including “Step by Step Instructions for Windows Server 2003, 2008, and 2012:”, this may be preferred for installing onto newer versions of Windows Server (or installing newer versions of Chrome onto Windows Server 2003).

Other/Misc downloads

Here are some additional download URLs have have been identified:



https://support.google.com/chrome/a/answer/188446?hl=en http://www.askvg.com/official-link-to-download-google-chrome-standalone-offline-installer/




Silent Installer info: ChromeStandaloneSetup64.exe /silent /install googlechromestandaloneenterprise64.msi /quiet /qn /norestart or, for visible: googlechromestandaloneenterprise64.msi /passive /qf /promptrestart

Originally released only for Apple systems, this has been released for XP/Vista.

Xombrero home page, Xombrero for Microsoft Windows (Xombrero snapshots for Microsoft Windows), Xombrero at Github

Made by some fans of OpenBSD, one of the features of this browser is to have a design that is friendly to keyboard users. Hyperlinks can be easily visited by pressing f (for follow?), or period. That will highlight all of the hyperlinks; pressing Esc will go back to making the highlighting disappear.

The stauts bar is off by default; pressing Ctrl-N enables it for the current tab. Tab switching can be done with Ctrl-T (new tab) and Ctrl-arrows.

This is listed on Wikipedia's comparison of lightweight web browsers: section about “Operating system support”. Wikipedia's page on Xombrero has listed this as having a size of 0.2 MB. However, a version for Microsoft Windows has exceeded 50MB.

Series 60 (platform by Nokia, for wireless phones)
(Standard Opera Browser for full computer systems)

Opera has been a browser with a focus on standards support and performance, such as being light-weight, and being able to boast a number of ports/offshoots such as Opera Mini and officially licensed software for Nintendo platforms. It has been a bit less free than other alternatives, historically being adware and, even once the ads were removed, still not releasing source code (in contrast to how several other browsers operate).

"At one time it charged for its PC browser but with just about every other browser on the market available free, abandoned that approach." Wikipedia's article on “Browser wars”: Browser competition for Windows states “In September 2005, Opera removed the ad banner and licensing fee from their browser with the release of Opera 8.5. Their stated goal was to replace Firefox as the second most used web browser.”

The installation file for Opera 3.62 for Microsoft Windows 3.x is only 1,434,421 bytes.

[#operamin]: Opera Mini
Opera Mini (an alternate URL for Opera Mini) (an Opera Mini alternate URL) (local dir): On July 18, 2007 I noticed the latest version of Opera Mini on the main page was referenced as 3.1 (although the download page on the phone referenced version 3.1.2), but there were links to the address for an upcoming (Beta) version of Opera Mini (which had a page directing people to point cell phone browsers to mini.opera.com/beta .)
Konquerer, said to also be a KDE file manager, may need to be reclassified into an above section if more appropraite. Epiphany "is the 'Gnome' official browser." "Galeon browser was nice and it is being slowly integrated into Epiphany." (Quotes from Return of IceWeasel comment.) There are others Wikipedia: Comparison of web browsers. Safari.
[#macbrows]: Macintosh browsers
After Microsoft Internet Explorer for the Mac was discontinued, some Mac users did not know what to use next. Mac browsers are mentioned in a few places in TOOGAM's web browsers area, but here is a quick Mac-specific rundown which also has links to some Mac-specific software. Pure Mac: Web Browsers has links to several browsers. Many support the "OSX Intel & PPC Native" architecture, including Firefox (the generally recommended replacement), Camino, Safari (OSX's default browser), SeaMonkey, Mozilla (which was discontinued after 1.7.13, so SeaMonkey should be sought for newer code), Opera 9.25 (and perhaps other versions), OmniWeb, Netscape, iCab, and Camino. Netscape 7.2, iCab 3.0.3, and Opera 6.03 supported OSX for the PPC. For older MacOS versions (8 and 9), choices listed were a bit slimmer and older, but existant: Opera 6.03, Netscape 4.8 and 7.02, Mozilla (Suite) 1.2.1 iCab 3.0.3. There's also the text mode WannaBe and Lynx browsers, and some more browsers that aren't quite as well known. Of all these, other than the discontinued Microsoft Internet Explorer for the Mac, Firefox is a well known multi-platform solution that works well for those that can run it. Several other products listed also use the Gecko rendering engine, with Opera being the most widespread other browser that doesn't.
[#gfxplugs]: Web Plugins for the graphical browsers

In addition to “Plug-ins”, there are Add-ons for Firefox.

PluginDoc has pages that list the latest versions of several web addons including mozdev PluginDoc: Windows (Most Popular) (for 32-bit (and newer?) releases of Windows) and the mozdev PluginDoc: Windows (A - Z) which lists even more plug-ins.

[#hostenv]: Hosting Environments
[#javaplug]: Java
[#jre]: Sun's Java Runtime Environment

There are various releases of Java-related files available. The Java 2 Runtime Enviornment (Standard Edition) may be abbreviated J2RE, JRE, or J2SE. Note that J2SE could also refer to the Java Development Kit (JDK), and not be the smallest download designed for end users.

Note that OpenOffice.Org releases might come with JRE bundled, so if that is also desirable then obtaining an OpenOffice package with JRE may, in at least some cases, be the simplest method of downloading JRE. (JRE did not appear to come bundled with OOO but did with the 2.3.1's default download for several operating systems).

Newest Version
Java SE Downloads point people to the latest version of the Java Runtime Environment (below the links on the page to the JDK). It is recommended to check out that page to ensure the latest version is being downloaded.
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment 6 Update 2
J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 Update 14 (
Clicking "Manual Install" led to JRE for 98/ME download page, where I could select the offline downloader's via redirection URL which redirected my web client to JRE file. (This is newer than the version listed at PluginDoc's page of addons for Windows, as of Christmas Eve 2007 where PluginDoc called the "Previous Version", before JRE 6.0 Update 2, Java Runtime Environment 5.0 Update 12 Offline Installer.)
JRE 1.4x
Java 1.4.0_04 install notes indicate that Java 2 Standard Edition v 1.4.0_04 (download) supports Windows 95. Notes from the next version, Java 2 Runtime Environment, Standard Edition Version 1.4.1 Installation Notes for Microsoft Windows, do not indicate Win95 support.
JRE 1.3.1
J2RE Std Ed Ver 1.3.1 for Microsoft Windows Installation Notes. J2SE v 1.3.1_20 download page. This and other older versions can be found from the Java Technology Products Download Archive area.
Microsoft's Virtual Machine

Bundled with some versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer, this was eventually discontinued due to a legal issues with Sun.

This was included in Windows XP Service Pack 1 (WinXP SP1). Microsoft later released Windows XP Service Pack 1a (WinXP SP1a) which was like SP1 but which removed the Microsoft JVM in response to a lawsuit with Sun Microsystems. (That and the version number were the only Differences Between Windows XP SP1 and Windows XP SP1a.) Later service packs, therefore, also have not included JVM. The version included with SP1 is 3805 and so should be updated.

For older operating systems: Microsoft Java Virtual Machine Microsoft JVM 3810 Update (which requires an earlier JVM) (stored locally in plugins folder for now, zipped). Perhaps see also: JVM 3809 for Win2K?. To get an earlier version of MS JVMinstalled, try installing MS IE if needed. (One can try running JVIEW to see if a Java Virtual Machine is installed. That also gives the version number.)

Other hosting environments
For now, this is simply a list of things that I believe I've seen, but as of this writing I have not explored them.
  • Qemu under Java?
  • DOSEmu under Java
[multimed]: Multimedia
Multimedia players
For Windows Media Player, and software to play QuickTime and Real media files, see the Multimedia Software section. This does not include Macromedia/Adobe Flash Player since that is distributed primarily as a web add-on.
[#actscrpt]: ActionScript (including Flash)

At the time of this writing, Shumway is expected to become released with Firefox eventually (just as PDF.js (Github: pdf.js, Firefox Add-ons: PDF Viewer) has). At the time of this writing, Shumway is a part of Firefox Nightly but hasn't been integrated withthe relase version yet. If using Firefox Nightly, Mozilla's directions specify to go to about:config and flip “shumway.disabled” preference to “false”.

To experience Shumway in normal Firefox (perhaps just for Microsoft Windows?), check out Shumway site at Mozilla's GitHub section (specifically Shumway installer for Firefox. Once installed, Firefox for Windows users can see that it is active by looking on the Tools menu, choosing Add-ons (Ctrl-Shift-A), choosing “Extensions” (in the left frame), and seeing the “Disable” button is available to be clicked on. If that can be clicked on, then the extension is enabled.

Some sample content may be seen at the Shumway site at Mozilla's GitHub section.

Further info may be at Using the Shumway Extension (or, perhaps the hyperlink at Using the Shumway Extension works better).

Other info: Moz Dev info on Shumway, Shumway Wiki at MozillaWiki

Adobe Flash Player
See: Adobe Flash Player.

Wikipedia article about ActionScript

Macromedia's technologies
[#flashply] Adobe Flash Player

The information on this page may currently be fairly old; see also Flash playing for alternatives.

Adobe Shockwave Player
http://www.adobe.com/products/shockwaveplayer/ http://www.adobe.com/shockwave/download/
Microsoft Silverlight
Supposedly designed to be similar to, and compete with, Flash
[#infoview]: Info Viewers
Portable Document Format (PDF)
Because of how pervasive PDF files have become on the web, PDF software is listed primarily here. (PDF files are not limited to the web: Another common use of them is for instruction manuals, often found on a product's bundled CD-ROM if there is one.)
Adobe (Acrobat) Reader
For Adobe Reader, which was called Adobe Acrobat Reader, the version to obtain will depend on the OS. For more details about this product, see the PDF Software page.

Foxit is a PDF viewer. (See the PDF Software page

Other software
PostScript? Ghost Script? There is some sort of software for documentation that exports to HTML, PDF, and others (like maybe man pages?).
Rich Text Format
I believe some major browser (Probably IE and not Firefox? Maybe other way around?) supported .RTF files. They can be handled by Windows Write (I believe as early as Write from Windows 3.1, if not earlier).
Other formats
Reading .DOC word processing documents meant to be compatible with Microsoft Word can be handled by browsers with the appropriate plug-in software. See this site's "Office Software" section in the Software Archive.
[#webeditr]: Web Editors

Interested in making a number of web pages? Then familiarity with the HTML <LINK> tag's navigational features is recommended! For those making a site with multiple related pages, using this valid, under-utilized HTML feature can aid in web navigational design efforts while supporting the use of web standards and demonstrating savviness in them. (Someday this web site may make greater use of them.)

Modern Web Editors
W3C's Amaya
Used by W3C as a testbed, this browser is designed to be an example of web standards, and so useful for developers of WWW software. This may be less consumer-oriented and performance-focused as some more popular web browsers.
Composer, which is the name given to a part of IceApe, SeaMonkey, Mozilla Suite, and Netscape Communicator (see Netscape 4 section, and is a web page editor. These pieces of software are listed as browsers since they aren't marketed primarily as editors. For more information, seek out details in the graphical web browsers section.
HTML-Kit Version 292
This version had been the latest version for years and years. It supports real-time preview, Spell Checking (if one has the appropriate dictionary file(s) installed, so be sure to get them), and SAPI. There are a number of add-ons available. See the HTML-Kit page.
HTML-Kit Tools
"HTML-Kit Tools, also known as Build 300, is the latest version of HTML-Kit." "HTML-Kit Tools is available for Windows Vista, XP, 2003 and 2000."
Evrsoft First Page (1st Page)
First Page 2006 FINAL (a.k.a. 1stPage3)
First Page 2006 FINAL, 1st Page 2006 FINAL (from download site #2), zipped in the local directory for Evrsoft software in a file called 1stpage3.zip.) 1stpage3's system requirements indicate this is for IE 3.02 and later, and WinME/2K and later
1st Page 2000 Version 2.0 Free Edition
The 1st Page 2000 Version 2.0 Free Edition download from the Evrsoft site does not appear to any longer be hyperlinked to from the Evrsoft site. http://www.evrsoft.com/1stpage2_requirements.shtml "Microsoft Windows® 95 or later operating system, Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation operating system version 4.0 or later with Service Pack 3 or later, or Microsoft Windows NT® Server operating system version 4.0 or later with Service Pack 3 or later. Windows 2000, Windows Me and Windows XP are now supported." First Page Twenty Thousand Readme? :)
1st Transfer
The Upload button in 1stPage 2006 recommends going to Modules directory which linked to 1st Transfer (FTP Client)
AceHTML Freeware
... May require a free registration code. (An old version did.) System rquirements are on: Visicom Media's Download Home. Build 0011 is for Win NT4 SP6, 2K, XP, Vista. (An older version should be Win98 compatible.) The actual AceHTML Freeware download page gives instructions to select "Free Trial". http://softwares2.visicommedia.com/softwares/en/acehtml/acehtmlfreeware.exe seemed to still work with Windows 98, however, and a What's New in AceHTML page indicated Win98 fixes in version 6.60. A "VMN Toolbar" seems to be required t o install. (TOOGAM does not remember that from an old version, perhaps AceHTML 4.)
Some discontinued Web Editors
These are software provided free of charge, which have been discontinued. Therefore, they are not expected to keep up with newer web standards. However, they were good, and may be better choices for older operating systems, compared to newer software that may not work so well on older development environments. (They are also fairly easy to use.)

A quality piece of software released by America Online, recommended even by people who didn't care for the giant service provider's main product (of online access).

This was an excellent HTML editor with the biggest flaw being that it has been discontinued so the browser does not support newer web technologies.

I believe this supported FRAMEs, but not DIVs or Layers, and not any form of CSS. I also don't recall if it had any sort of JavaScript support. Its interface was nice, though, being quite similar to that of a word processor.

AOLPress (The old AOLPress URL now redirects to http://www.aol.com/. Archived copies found via evolt.org Browser Archive (AOLPress section).

Titles for the Windows versions were taken from Archived download page

AOLPress 16-bit for Windows 3.x
AOLPrs20.Exe download page
AOLPress 32-bit for Windows 95/98
Had better support for working with "long filenames" than the Windows 3.1 version. AOLP20_32.Exe download page
AOLPress for Macintosh
Mac downoad: Including this rounds out all of the platforms that AOLPress was released for.
FrontPage Express
This software came bundled with Microsoft Internet Explorer versions 4 and 5. "I.E.5.5 does not include FrontPage Express. The fastest way to get FrontPage Express is to copy the FPESETUP.CAB from an old cd with IE4 or IE5 on it. MSN and AOL gave away alot of such cd's.The IE4 version cab will even fit on a floppy!" (See page about downloading the Microsoft Internet Explorer Web Browser for details of downloading this.) installation instructions includes information like needing advpack.dll for Win95. FrontPage Express was nice in some way: I believe the interface might have had some sort of real-time display?
[#minibrow]: Mini browsers

Mini browsers may be designed for simple devices, such as wireless phones. They may be desired due to their low usage requirements, allowing for greater portability (that is, the ability to use it on devices that may not be able to run other browsers), speed, and/or appliability to specific scenarios. In addition to these browsers/resources, text-mode browsers may often have some of the same advantages. (This section is more for browsers that have some graphical support.) Another resource on this site is TOOGAM's page on basic web browsers.

Minimo for PocketPC/Windows Mobile and Opera Mini are perhaps more beloved by the users who use them, compared to users of the Openwave browser built into many phones.

[#txtbrows]: Text mode choices
An early web browser is Lynx. (The older Lynx home page links to the newer one and references Lynx 2.8.5, whereas the page I'm considering the newer one refers to Lynx 2.8.6 as being stable.) has a DOS port.

w3m supports text mode and also supports showing inline graphics. Detailsa bout getting this for CygWin are available. See: w3m page.

Pressing H is supposed to load a help file. If that file isn't found, a person may just need to rely on w3m manual: key bindings to learn details, like that q is the key to start quitting the program (with a prompt).

Links (by Twibright Labs)

Links is claimed (by a page of OpenBSD ports) to support text mode, graphics, and JavaScript. Versions for 64-bit Microsoft Windows are in the win32 directory: Links for Microsoft Windows. Users of that operating system can see graphics by running the links-g.exe file.

Actually, though, Twibright Labs software web page describes the web browser by noting, “No Flash, CSS, Javascript supported.” Links web browser (by Twibright Labs) user manual (in English), Appendix 1: Links and Javascript notes that Links supported JavaScript, using Netscape Corporation's JavaScript 1.1. “However JavaScript support was removed in release 2.1pre29 because it was buggy.” The documentation goes on to describe how JavaScript support may be restored (for people who are interacting with the source code). Until that documentation gets updated with significantly different content, it appears unlikely that JavaScript will be getting supported by the officially distributed executables of this software.

Pressing Esc will show a menu.


Supports ECMAScript (JavaScript).

ELinks About page lists various platforms. Though that page has a “?” for Microsoft Windows, there is a CygWin option (which looks like an old version).

One of the more popular results in Google, and referenced by multiple other pages, CompMiscellanea.com Windows console applications: web browsers which offered this newer version provided by a third party: http://www.compmiscellanea.com/soft/windows/browsers/elinks/1/elinks-0.11.6.zip Although the description of this file was “Download ELinks prepared for working under Windows without Cygwin”, the distribution did come with Cygwin DLL files. bash script for making eLinks in CygWin looks like a way that is probably easy for people to make their own executable if they have a CygWin development environment installed.

(Some/all of these browsers may also be listed on TOOGAM's Basic Browsers (for personal computers) section of TOOGAM's page for Basic browsers.)
[#webmir]: Web mirrorer
The command line software WGet can get a single file or it can download multiple files, such as recursively grabbing items from a subdirectory. It supports HTTP and FTP, and can be obtained from the File Transfer programs page. There are other software items available from that page that also allow for one to spider a remote site and to create a local mirror.
[#other]: Other notes/software/options

Note that some web editors have the ability to show rendered web code, and to follow links, and so they could effectively be used as a web browser.

For some other web-related software, like cURL and WGet, see: file transferring programs.