For now, this page may not be quite as up to date as the Software Development page. (That should change as content is moved from that page to this one.)

C language, and derivatives (C++, C#)
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Java
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BASIC (“Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code”) and derivatives (Q(uick)BASIC, VisualBASIC)

BASIC is not very unified. Apple 2 computers (at least the Apple //e) had a limited BASIC available by rebooting and pressing Ctrl+Reset before anything booted. (That version, however, did not have the SAVE or LOAD commands. Another variety of BASIC was available if booting from a floppy disk, and that version did allow saving and loading files.) BASIC on the Apple used the HOME command to (clear the screen and) place the cursor in the upper-left "home" position. GWBASIC for the IBM/PC systems running MS-DOS used the CLS command to clear the screen (and place the cursor in the upper-left "home" position). PEEK and POKE commands wrote to specific memory addresses and so did not work cross-platform. QuickBASIC used line numbers as labels (so GOTO would work), but QuickBASIC for the Macintosh at least did not enforce their use: Q64431 about QuickBASIC 1.00 and 1.00a for Mac shows even duplicate line numbers were possible.

BASIC was generally an interpreted language, including QBASIC, but QuickBASIC did support creating stand-alone executable files.

Pascal and derivatives (Delphi)
Runtime patch. Downloadable version?
Assembly languages
Intel 80x86 Assembly
NASM, MASM. Debug, EXE2BIN, etc?
Debug
I believe some sort of Assembly-like commands get used by Microsoft Debug. I haven't used these tools extensively enough to be familiar with them.
Microsoft Debug
See MS-DOS page.
Turbo Debugger
Turbo Debugger 5.5 (Freeware) for Win32 and Turbo Debugger 5.5 (Freeware) for Win32 matched the copy I saved, surely obtained directly from Borland/Inprise. http://f2.org/download/borland/TurboDebugger.exe (from http://f2.org/software/win32/free/programming.html ) The file is no longer available from ftp://ftpd.borland.com/download/bcppbuilder/TurboDebugger.exe (unlike the February 26, 2007 article about free Borland downloads which describes the file being available but not showing up in the directory listings, and unlike bcpp which was still available as a hidden download).
6502 Asm
Used for some old computer systems, including Apple 2, Commodore 64, and the 8-bit Nintendo Entertainment System (NES).
Others
Transmeta? Newer Motorola that Apples have used? Some RISC chips? Sun's chips? Any others of likely widespread interest?
Web Scripting languages (JavaScript, VBScript)

Early browsers that supported client-side dynamic content (through JavaScript) allowed a web page designer to name an object on the web site, most traditionally a graphic, and then using the “scripting” programming languages to interact with that object. A graphic object consisted of the location of a file with the pixels to draw, and the location of the file which was the source of the pixels could be updated. That file location could be updated to point to another file which would cause the pixels of the new file to replace the pixels of the old file.

Modern browsers now support a “Document Object Module”, which is abbreviated “DOM”. People using web scripting languages can use the DOM to interact with various objects, such as graphics, that are created with the HTML tags. These objects also have various properties that can be interacted with, including the width and height and other elements of the styles used with the CSS specifications. Modern dynamic website development will typically involve being familiar with four things: HTML, a scripting language like JavaScript, a supported DOM, and CSS. A lot of web site development also involves a fifth element: server-side programming.

[#javascrp]: JavaScript (and similar)
Variants

JavaScript (the original), JScript (Microsoft's very similar variant), ECMAScript (standardized specification), JellyScript (subset), V8 (Google's version)

Tutorial/Reference
About Thau's JS Tut @ Webmonkey

Thau's JavaScript Tutorial at Webmonkey worked great. Comfort with writing HTML is recommended. TOOGAM's quick testimonial is the following: Although it doesn't look strictly necessary, I also had previous programming experience in langauges such as Java or C. It took way less than five days to cover both Thau's JavaScript Tutorial and also the Advanced JavaScript tutorial (although it may have taken all day for a day or two). This gave all the details I needed to really feel at the time, and later, that I knew JavaScript. If I recall correctly, there wasn't a lot about modern DOM or CSS, so that required some additional effort to become familiar with. However, it would have been unreasonable for the tutorial to cover such things because this was years ago, pre-dating the time when modern DOM usage and CSS became used as heavily. (Perhaps the tutorial has been updated?) This tutorial covered what was needed for an experienced programmer to understand JavaScript and didn't seem to be wasting a lot of time to accomplish that task.

Unfortunately, that tutorial seems to have moved around from time to time. So, some effort may be needed to find it. Locations have included:

[#scrdc56]: Microsoft WSH 5.6 Documentation

It seems that Microsoft has complicated things. This useful documentation has been removed from several places on Microsoft's website, without any reference to where the data may be found.

Fortunately, Microsoft has still offered the file. Perhaps inconveniently, instead of distributing the CHM file, they distribute a Windows executable that installs the CHM file to a directory: "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Wndows Script\ScriptDocs\\Script56.CHM"

(The installer also installs a ScrDoc56.INF file related to the installation)

This may be an old version. It is only about 1,351,013, and notes a copyright of 2001. (In contrast, this archive has preserved a 2,910,631 byte version with a file timestamp from 2008.)

Here is where the documentation may be found (as of this writing):

Older info on getting the CHM files

(This HTML file has some more information in HTML comments. If anyone wishes to view some old URLs, possibly in case that helps locate something from an archive, details have been preserved.)

Class info has offered hyperlinks to files, such as:

  • “A single 430 page pdf file of the JScript portion of the Script56.chm file.”
  • “A single 330 page pdf file of the VBScript portion of the Script56.chm file.”
  • “A single 440 page pdf file of the Windows Scripting Host (WSH)” “section of the Script56.chm file.”

Some old pages on Netscape/DevEdge have been known to have information on using JavaScript.

[#vbscript]: VBScript

This has also been known (by MSDN page on VBScript ADO Programming) to be called “Microsoft Visual Basic, Scripting Edition”.

Microsoft Documentation
On the web
VBScript Guide, with hyperlinks to VBScript User's Guide and VBScript Language Reference, the latter of which has a hyperlink to the related section VBScript Fundamentals.
Downloadable

See: WSH 5.6 documentation.

Contains the same features (User's Guide, Language Reference, Language Fundamentals) as the VBScript Guide on the web (listed just above). Also contains more info (like a section on JScript).

An experienced programmer can get up and going with VBScript using simply those documents. As a testament to that, TOOGAM did so in a weekend (spending Friday night through Sunday night pouring over those documents). By Monday, TOOGAM announced enough familiarity with the language to be able to assist with some professional development work, and did so. However, TOOGAM was familiar with multiple other languages, including JavaScript and BASIC. That familiarity likely helped, so such an aggressive time schedule (of a single weekend) and these documents may not be realistic for less experienced coders.

Sc1, a single executable release available from the web page for downloads related to SciTE (a name which stands for “Scintilla based Text Editor” according to the web site's main page) provides some syntax highlighting for VBScript. This software is cross-platform and open source. PSPad is freeware and may provide some more functionality, such as a tooltip showing the syntax needed for a function. (When visiting the site, check if there is a Beta version released more recent than the latest non-Beta release.) Rob van der Woude's page about Script Editors & IDEs (run by Rob van der Woude, who seems to have information on various interesting topics, and, despite the name similarity, is not of any known close relation to Scott Conrad VanderWoude from this site) provides details about some editors that support VBScript, and lists PSPad and Notepad++ (which might be similar to SciTE) as being free options. VBSEdit is shareware and may provide even more support for VBScript, by allowing some interactions with objects.

Others

Some of these might belong in other categories, such as web scripting langauges.

Perl
For DOS: Multiple versions (described http://www.delorie.com/pub/djgpp/current/v2gnu/00_index.txt) for DJGPP: DJGPP Current v2gnu directory. Is one of the few external applications that is built into OpenBSD.

For web use, see also SpeedyCGI (The OpenBSD package for this is called p5-CGI-SpeedyCGI.) Open WebMail FAQ claims "Open WebMail gets almost 5x to 10x speedup when running with SpeedyCGI." (Hyperlink added to quote.)

[#ook]: Ook!

“Ook!” has just three “syntax elements”. A group of two syntax elements is used to perform a very simple task. The syntax elements are “Ook.”, “Ook?”, and “Ook!” Voice tone would be crucial if trying to verbally read source code.

The web page hyperlinked above gives details. There's no “Ook? Ook?” sequence. Clearly a derived language could be made using just the three symbols period, exclamation point, and question mark. (Each of the eight commands could also be uniquely represented by as few as three bits.) The “Ook!” language is quite simplistic, having just three symbols used to implement 8 basic commands. However, as a way of comparison, Wikipedia's article on P double prime describes a language with only four instructions (rather than the eight which are created using Ook's three symbols). Of course, a language can be made using even fewer symbols than what Ook uses.

Malbolge

The language has limits, such as the maximum amount of memory being enough to hold 59,049 ten-digit numbers. So, it is not possible to make very elaborate programs.

Wikipedia's article for Malbolge notes, “Malbolge was so difficult to understand when it arrived that it took two years for the first Malbolge program to appear. That program was not written by a human being”. Even for simple programs, this language is so challenging, Wikipedia's article for Malbolge states, “There is a discussion about whether one can implement sensible loops in Malbolge — it took many years before the first non-terminating one was introduced. A correct 99 Bottles of Beer program, which deals with non-trivial loops and conditions, was not announced for seven years” after the language's 1998 release. This impressed the language's creator, Ben Olmstead (Ben's comment on a looping program).

PHP, Python, Schema, Lisp, LUA